Today’s blog post is brought to you by Arielle Parsons, eMammal Project Coordinator. She’s based in the Biodiversity Lab in the Nature Research Center. Thanks, Arielle!
Do you ever wonder what animals lurk in the most wild parts of the state? Or in your own backyard? Still waiting for photographic proof of a North Carolina mountain lion? Big foot? North Carolina’s Candid Critters is your chance to discover the secrets of wildlife right here in North Carolina!
The NC Museum of Natural Sciences, NC Wildlife Resources Commission, and NC State University are bringing you a new citizen science project that will span the entire state of North Carolina from the mountains to the sea. No matter what county you live in, you can borrow a camera trap from a nearby public library to set on approved public lands. If you own your own camera trap, you can set it on either approved public land or in your own back yard. Then, wait and see what critters you catch! At the same time you are discovering what wildlife live near you, you will be helping the NC Wildlife Resources Commission learn more about deer reproduction and the distribution of all mammal species across the state.
Camera traps are cool technology that allow us to collect pictures of animals without disturbing them. These cameras are digital and can store thousands of photos. They’re easy to use, so you don’t need to be a professional scientist or photographer to help us collect data. Simply complete our 45 minute online training and you’ll qualify as a camera trapper! Cameras will be run in one place for 3 weeks, then volunteers will use our specially developed eMammal software to tag the species in the photographs and upload them for archiving at the Smithsonian. These photos will be stored indefinitely, allowing scientists of the future to look at how mammals change over time in the state. It’s easy, fun, and you can choose your favorite photos to share with us and others online.
One of the main advantages of pictures from camera traps is that they are verifiable, which means that they are “evidence” that an animal was located in a specific time and place. The photos generated turn into data, allowing us to map where animals live and when and where they are most active across the state. We can use these images to study how wildlife interacts with their environment, with humans, and with other species. For example, we’ve used camera trap photos to determine that human recreation like hiking, hunting, and dog walking is largely compatible with most wildlife species in the Southeast and doesn’t cause measurable disturbance.
To answer these types of questions for mammals, we need to collect data on very large scales, like entire states, and we can’t do it alone. This is where you come in! By participating in North Carolina’s Candid Critters, you will help us collect the data necessary to meet our scientific goals over the entire state to fully understand the wildlife of North Carolina. The project will kick off with the first cameras being set in the Eastern third of the state beginning December 2016, then we will move into all 100 counties in March 2017! If you own your own camera, you can start anytime no matter what county you live in! You can follow our progress and see favorite photos and preliminary results on our website.
We hope you will join us in this ambitious project! Sign up now at NCCandidCritters.org.
For the past two years, the Museum has offered Dragonfly Detectives to afterschool, homeschool, and other youth groups to get kids outside doing real science. Over a 6-week period, participants learn about aquatic systems and local dragonflies, but they also collect data that contribute toward three dragonfly focused citizen science projects. For the primary Dragonfly Detectives project, our participants study the impacts of weather on dragonflies at NC State Parks and other outdoor facilities throughout the state. Our Dragonfly Detectives participate in the entire process of science, from making a hypothesis to collecting and analyzing data to making conclusions based on their data. At the end of the program, they create a scientific poster that highlights their results so that others can learn from their research.
To our very great pleasure, we were able to show off the great work that our Dragonfly Detectives have done at BugFest again this year! We invited all our year 2 participants to come and show off their posters to the public as official BugFest volunteers. Though the project leaders were on hand the whole day, the kids came to the event knowing they’d be doing most of the talking.
Over 20 kids attended this year and talked to visitors about what they did and learned as Dragonfly Detectives. The kids walked visitors through their posters, showed off their knowledge and the equipment they used, and answered dragonfly questions. Some kids got so into it that they asked if they could stay longer than they were scheduled! It was a ton of fun as a project leader to watch the kids interact with the visitors, but it was particularly heartwarming to see how BugFest attendees, particularly adults, often went out of their way to talk to the Dragonfly Detectives. Some visitors talked to the kids for 15 minutes or more. That’s a very long time for anyone to stay at a single table at BugFest!
This year, our Dragonfly Detectives volunteers talked to over 1000 people throughout the day, teaching visitors more about these fabulous insects and the great science the kids have done. We couldn’t be more proud of the amazing job they did! We’re already looking forward to doing it all again next year so that we can continue to highlight these fantastic young scientists.
My job as caretaker of the Museum’s historical documents involves dealing with anything old or of unknown origin. Whenever someone cleans up their office or the back corner of the basement, things suddenly show up in my office. I thought everything old had surfaced when we made the big move in 2000 from a building the Museum occupied for more than 80 years to this one. But even after 15 years in this building, people still bring me stuff: mostly papers, sometimes photographic prints and less often, objects. Recently I received a box that was an assortment of birding and fishing tools, magazines, and rum bottles.
The items were discovered by our Curator of Ornithology. He thinks they may have been props in the old building’s Ducks and Geese exhibit.
That’s a reasonable possibility. But also, some of items may have belonged to our second director, Harry T. Davis. Davis died without issue, therefore some of his personal effects were left at the Museum. These cards certainly belonged to Davis.
The scope and tripod might have belonged to Davis. He was an avid birder and a co-author of Birds of North Carolina.
There were shotgun shells and fishing gear in the box. I know Harry Davis hunted in his youth. In fact, he lost part of his leg when his brother’s gun accidentally went off at close range. Davis probably fished, too, as many county boys did back in the 30s and 40s.
The trap shells are probably related to this thing we found in the basement recently.
The pipe and tobacco probably belonged to Davis or possibly our first director, H.H. Brimley. The slogans on the tobacco tins are interesting: “A cargo of contentment…” and “When a Feller Needs a Friend.” I guess smoking was the equivalent of “comfort food”.
The brown Briggs tin caught my interest. I googled it hoping to find an interesting tidbit, and to try to find out whether or not they are related to the Briggs Hardware folks. I found similar tins for sale on eBay for $7 to $25, depending condition. As for the tobacco, opinions on the website tobaccoreview.com were favorable “Briggs is a standout light Burley, golden Virginia mixture,” and a “rich burley flavor with tones of a light VA with hints of apple and bourbon.” Burley tobacco was the variety grown in the western part of North Carolina.
Another item that caught my eye was the green AL. Foss tin. Not knowing anything about fishing I thought it was amusing that pork rind could be used as bait. Once again I turned to the internet for insight.
According to Joe’s Old Lures, “The baits have a variety of patented spinner blades and many were designed to be used with pork rind strips, having a button for attaching the pork.” [http://www.joeyates.com/alfosslures.htm]
And then there were the whiskey bottles. Most surely liquor was imbibed on a hunting trip but the bottles certainly weren’t on exhibit. (Not that I recall.) We’re not sure why these were included in the box. In case you are wondering, they were empty bottles!
The smallest bottle in the photo is Mennen Skin Bracer, an aftershave lotion. Perhaps it is what it says it is (but why would you need aftershave on a hunting trip?) or maybe someone had to sneak liquor out of the house so his wife didn’t know he was drinking again.
And my favorite item in the box: the Fisherman’s De-liar, complete with ruler and scale: the perfect gift for someone whose fish stories get bigger with each telling.
The only objects in the box I couldn’t recognize right away were these things.
They did look vaguely familiar. I had a dim memory of a photograph of someone holding one of these. I thought it was the photo of woman with a large seine (fishing) net: the one pictured below.
But no, you can’t see the tool they were using. Then I remembered a close-up shot of Josephus Willis, the whaleman that killed the right whale “Mayflower” that’s on exhibit in the main building (see Mayflower for more information). In this photo, he is repairing a fishing net. Yes! You can see the tool he was using and it is the same as these tools. They are called net needles.
And in the bottom of the box were several issues of old hunting magazines.
So of course the fisherman’s De-liar went on display in my office while the other items were stored in our Archives.
Every summer, hundreds of baby sea turtles hatch on Topsail Island and make their way to the ocean by the light of the moon. They face many threats: ghost crabs prey on them; competing light from houses, hotels, and other buildings that line the beach misdirect them, and sharks and other predators await them in the vast ocean. But a few survive until adulthood, and every year for millions of years, female turtles have returned to their natal beaches to nest, and start the cycle again.
The Museum’s Head of Outreach, Jerry Reynolds, leads a trip to the beach each August, giving participants the rare chance to witness a hatching. Loggerhead sea turtles are the primary species to nest on Topsail, and their hatchlings usually emerge at night, in the relative safety of darkness. Some years, participants have huddled on the beach in the cold and rain for hours, “nest-sitting”…
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Last week was the annual butterfly count in Raleigh and Prairie Ridge was once again one of the sites taking part in the event. Two Museum staffers and a few volunteers conducted this year’s count at Prairie Ridge and documented some great finds!
The most abundant butterfly for the 2016 count was the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail:
These very large butterflies have been particularly abundant at Prairie Ridge and across most of the Triangle this year. They feed on a wide variety of plants in our Nature Neighborhood Garden and come in two different colors. Males and about half of the females are as pictured above, yellow with black markings of the typical color pattern most people associate with this species. About half of the females are entirely black, however. These are the “dark morph” of the species. If the light hits their wings just right, you will be able to see that they still have the stripes of the yellow version, though the stripes are so close in color to the rest of the scales on the wings that you won’t normally see them.
One of the most exciting finds this year was a large number of Gulf Fritillaries:
This is a tropical species that moves northward into the US in the summer. Some years they make it as far north as North Carolina and other years they do not. This year was a marvelous year for Gulf Fritillaries! We were able to confirm at least a dozen individuals in the garden at one time, but there were likely even more in other locations on the grounds. Like their relative the Variegated Fritillary, the Gulf Fritillary lays its eggs on the Purple Passionflower vines throughout the Prairie Ridge grounds and the caterpillars will feed on the leaves once they hatch.
Another great find this year was a large number of Sleepy Oranges:
This is not a rare butterfly at Prairie Ridge, but some years are better than others for this species. This is apparently a good year! We saw many in the garden during the count, feeding on Ironweed, Coral Honeysuckle, and other flowering plants. Sleepy Oranges belong to the butterfly family Pieridae, which is known for its rapid flight and brief stops at flowers. They get their name from their relatively slow flight compared to most of the other species in the family. You’ll often see them dart from plant to plant close to the ground, their bright orange upper wings visible until they land and clap their wings together over their backs, exposing the pale yellow lower surface as they sip nectar.
Overall, we documented over 150 butterflies of 21 species at Prairie Ridge throughout the day. The data we gathered will be combined with that from other sites around Raleigh, then the entire dataset will be submitted to the North American Butterfly Association’s annual Butterfly Count Program. These counts help NABA publish data on the current distributions of butterfly species across North America. The data can also be compared to counts from previous years to monitor population changes and how weather and land use impact butterfly species.
Thanks to everyone who helped count butterflies at Prairie Ridge this year! We’re already looking forward to participating again in 2017 to play our part in butterfly research, conservation, and appreciation.
This has been a wonderful year for butterflies at Prairie Ridge! Their season appears to have peaked and we are now headed on a downward slope into the fall, but there is still a lot of activity happening across the grounds. There has also been a rush for many of our butterflies to lay a few final eggs before the end of the summer. However, because there are so many butterflies out and about, the competition for suitable egg laying locations has become intense and females have to look hard for places to lay. Let’s take a look at a great example we came across yesterday, a Pipevine Swallowtail!
Pipevine Swallowtails are large butterflies in the swallowtail family. They are a deep black with orange and yellow spots on the lower surface of their hindwings and a gorgeous iridescent blue on the upper surface:
Their caterpillars only feed on pipevine species, so the females lay their eggs on pipevines of a variety of species. At Prairie Ridge, we have a large Woolly Pipevine plant growing on the fence to the right of the main entrance to the garden:
It’s a big plant and can support many caterpillars, but there’s a little gap between when the eggs are laid and when the caterpillars hatch. Caterpillars can’t feed on the older, tougher leaves until they grow up a bit, so the adult females look for new growth to lay their eggs on. That way, the newborn caterpillars will emerge right onto the softest leaves of the plant and can start feeding immediately. As they feed and molt, they’ll become more powerful chewers and will eventually be able to eat any leaf on the plant.
At this time of year, there is a lot of new growth on our Woolly Pipevine, but there are also a lot of eggs and caterpillars already present on those parts of the plant. If there are too many eggs laid on the soft new growth, the caterpillars might eat all of their food before they are able to chew the tougher leaves and starve. Adult females thus look for new growth that doesn’t already have eggs or caterpillars on it. Our Woolly Pipevine is absolutely crawling with caterpillars currently, so the females now need to look a little harder for suitable places to deposit their eggs.
That brings us to yesterday! An adult female Pipevine Swallowtail appeared and started flying around the Wooly Pipevine on the fence. She landed on many different parts of the plant, turning little circles on the leaves or stems where she landed and probing the plant parts with the tip of her abdomen. (Butterflies can “taste” things with chemical sensors in their feet, so presumably she was looking for something that tasted like pipevine!) She apparently didn’t find a good place while she was on the primary plant, so she started searching a little further out. Eventually, she started flying around this spot on the ground near the pond in the garden:
See the plant? If not, it’s highlighted here:
Really, there’s a plant there! Let’s zoom in a little further:
That big piece of mulch above and to the left of the plant in the center is about 2 inches long for scale. A very small Woolly Pipevine sprout! However, this was apparently a good sprout, as the female “tasted” the plant extensively before settling down to lay some eggs on it:
She held her abdomen to the under surface of the leaves for about half a minute, then fluttered off looking for more plants. These are her eggs:
All that work for two little red eggs on a tiny sprout. Hopefully they will hatch soon and we’ll be able to see some tiny caterpillars munching on slightly larger Woolly Pipevine leaves!
The butterflies will likely be very abundant at Prairie Ridge for a few more weeks. Consider coming out soon to see how many different types you can see! We’ve also highlighted several butterflies recently on our Prairie Ridge Facebook page, so you can find more information and photos about Prairie Ridge butterflies and other species there.
What Time is it in Nature is a periodic feature highlighting the current plants, animals, and other wildlife at the Museum’s public outdoor facility, Prairie Ridge Ecostation. Find out more about the natural happenings at Prairie Ridge at our What Time is it in Nature Archive.
Photos by Chris Goforth
We’re just over two months into the CitSciScribe project and we’ve already made some amazing progress! Here’s what our citizen science curators have helped us accomplish so far:
- 5183 transcriptions
- Over 135 hours of work
- Two entire projects!
We reached our first major milestone, the first completed project, just two weeks after launching CitSciScribe! The Duke Marine Labs Project had the smallest number of transcriptions, but we were thrilled to see the work done so quickly. Our citizen scientists completed the second project, the Charleston Amphibians and Reptiles Project, a couple of weeks ago. Two out of the three original projects are already finished, and we are well on our way toward completing the Charleston fish project too.
To keep up with the amazing speed of our citizen science curators, we recently added a new project, the Core Amphibians and Reptile Project. While the other three projects have had participants working toward digitizing the data for newly acquired collections given to us by other museums, the Core project features specimens that have been a part of the NCMNS reptile and amphibian collection for decades. The project will help museum herpetologists make the data from our own collections more widely available to everyone – and vastly more quickly than we would be able to accomplish without the help of our citizen scientists!
As our citizen science curators work through the transcriptions via our project website, Museum staff are hard at work tackling behind-the-scenes tasks related to this project. We’re working to prepare materials to launch new projects in the future and expect to have another project available soon. We are also working to review the transcriptions done so far. As transcriptions are reviewed, we can move them into the official Museum collections databases. At that point, the information contained in our paper records will become available to the public online for the first time. That means that everyone, everywhere will be able to look through the specimen data and make use of it without ever having to step foot in the Museum.
Thanks to everyone who has participated in CitSciScribe so far! Your hard work has been inspiring and you’ve been more productive than we’d even hoped. And if you haven’t gotten involved yet, we’d love to have you join us! Visit the CitSciScribe website to make a free account and get started.